Shada Padartha – Superiority Concept in Ayurveda

shada padartha

Superiority among Shada  Padartha

Shada Padartha is a term given to collectively 6 factors or materials viz. Dravya, Guna, Karma, Rasa, Veerya and Vipaka. Rasa panchaka is a term which includes five factors of dravya i.e., rasa, guna,Veerya, vipaka. These five are always the factors of dravya and these are having inseparable relation with dravya. The actions of these five factors depends on dravya only because these five are the fractions of dravya and some of interrelated while performing the karma.


Among these rasa panchakas Charaka mentioned vipaka as the first because of its wide spread actions over the body. But the recent authers mentioned in the order of rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka, prabhava.

Some are mentioned that rasa is more dominant than guna, guna is dominant than veerya, is this sequence till prabhava, but all these factors reside in dravya only for the propagation of actions of  components and dravya is the seat for all these five components. Every matters in the world are studied under the concept of dravya only.

For the fulfillment of treatment in Ayurvedic science the knowledge of dravya is must. So for the knowledge of dravya the knowledge of these five factors is important.

Lastly  whatever the opinion about the superiority of these five factors, as per the concern to application. The knowledge of whole five factors carrying equal weight age.


“ Due to its presence and combination the substance acquires a distinct activity that is called Prabhava.”

Prabhava- one which is of beyond to the normal effect even though two dravyas having same rasa, guna, beerya and vipaka, are shown for an definite action but finally it gives different action, this action of difference is due prabhava. This prabhva is also called achintya.

Characteristics of Prabhava:

If both the plants are having same rasa, guna, etc. its karma is different. This is due to the prabhava. For eg: milk and ghee both are sweet and cold but ghee is agni deepana but milk is not. This is due to prabhava.

When dravya, rasa, guna, vipaka cannot explain any effect, then it should be assumed to be attributed by prabhava.

Prabhava is the unique property of dravya which is unconvinced by other properties, its effect is seen but one cannot establish a casual relationship.

By ancient scriptures prabhava is considered as superior one.

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