Vidanga (Embelia ribes)

Basonym of Drug:

The basonym of the medicinal plant Vidanga is Embelia ribes.

Main Sanskrit Synonyms:

In Ayurveda, Vidanga is known by various Sanskrit synonyms that encompass its therapeutic attributes. Some primary Sanskrit synonyms of Vidanga include:

  • Krimighna/Jantuhantri/Amogha : It is useful in worm infestations.
  • Bahushakha/Vella: Plant is creeper,having many branches.
  • Chitratandula/Shwetatandula: Its seeds have white streaks.

Regional Names (Vernacular Names):

Vidanga is known by different names in various regional languages:

  • Hindi: Baividang
  • Bengali: Baidanga
  • Tamil: Vaayuvilangam
  • Telugu: Vayuvilangam
  • Kannada: Vayuvilanga
  • Malayalam: Vayambu

Scientific Classification of Dravya:

  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Clade: Tracheophytes
  • Clade: Angiosperms
  • Clade: Eudicots
  • Clade: Rosids
  • Order: Myrtales
  • Family: Myrsinaceae
  • Genus: Embelia
  • Species: ribes

Classical Classification of Dravya (Gana):

Charaka Samhita: Krimighna, Kusthaghna, Triptighna, Shirovirechana.

Sushruta Samhita: Surasadi, Pippalyadi

Vagbhata: Surasadi, Pippalyadi

Bhavprakash Nighantu: Trimada

External Morphology:

Vidanga is a woody climber with slender stems and glossy leaves. The plant produces small, greenish-yellow flowers that grow in clusters. The fruits of Vidanga are round and reddish-black when ripe. The seeds of Vidanga are the medicinal part used for various therapeutic purposes.

Useful Parts:

The seeds of Vidanga are the most commonly used part for medicinal purposes. They are rich in active constituents that contribute to its health benefits.

Important Phytoconstituents:

Vidanga contains various phytochemicals that contribute to its medicinal properties, including:

  • Quinones: These compounds possess anthelmintic and antimicrobial properties.
  • Embelin: The major bioactive compound in Vidanga, known for its anthelmintic and antibacterial effects.
  • Volatile Oils: These oils contribute to the plant’s aromatic properties and therapeutic effects.

Rasa Panchaka:

Rasa (Predominant Taste): Katu (Pungent), Kashaya (Astringent)

Guna (Property): Laghu (Light), Ruksha (Dry), Teekshna (Penetrating)

Veerya (Potency): Ushna (Hot)

Vipaka (Post-digestive Effect): Katu (Pungent)

Prabhava: Krimighna (Anthelmintic)

Action on Dosha, Dhatu, and Mala:

Dosha: Vidanga primarily balances “Kapha” and “Vata” doshas.

Dhatu (Tissue): It affects the Rasa (plasma), Rakta (blood), Mamsa (muscle), and Purisha (feces) dhatus.

Mala (Waste Products): Vidanga helps in eliminating intestinal parasites, aiding in proper excretion.

Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indications):

Vidanga is highly valued for its anthelmintic and digestive properties. It is used in Ayurveda to address a range of health issues including:

  1. Krimi (Worm Infestations): Vidanga is primarily known for its potent anthelmintic (anti-worm) properties. It is used to expel intestinal parasites and worms, making it beneficial in conditions like roundworm infestations, tapeworms, and other worm-related digestive issues.

  2. Prameha (Diabetes): Vidanga is used to manage diabetes due to its blood-sugar-regulating properties. It helps improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism.

  3. Grahani Roga (Irritable Bowel Syndrome): Vidanga’s digestive and carminative properties help alleviate symptoms of Grahani Roga, which involves gastrointestinal discomfort and irregular bowel movements.

  4. Visarpa (Erysipelas) and Other Skin Disorders: Vidanga’s antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties make it useful in managing skin conditions like erysipelas and other bacterial skin infections.

  5. Kasa (Cough) and Shwasa (Respiratory Disorders): Vidanga is used to manage respiratory issues such as cough, bronchitis, and asthma due to its expectorant and bronchodilatory properties.

  6. Atisara (Diarrhea) and Grahani Dosha: Vidanga can help regulate bowel movements and manage conditions like diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome by its digestive and astringent properties.

  7. Ajeerna (Indigestion): Vidanga’s carminative and digestive properties aid in relieving indigestion, bloating, and flatulence.

  8. Vibandha (Constipation): Vidanga’s mild laxative properties can help alleviate constipation by promoting healthy bowel movements.

  9. Raktadosha (Blood Disorders): Vidanga’s detoxifying properties contribute to its use in managing blood-related disorders, toxins, and impurities.

  10. Visha Harana (Detoxification): Vidanga is included in formulations to aid in detoxification and purify the body from accumulated toxins.

  11. Netra Roga (Eye Disorders): In Ayurveda, Vidanga is used in eye drops and formulations for various eye conditions, contributing to eye health.

  12. Apasmara (Epilepsy) and Neurological Disorders: Vidanga’s neuroprotective effects are believed to support conditions like epilepsy and certain neurological disorders.

  13. Aruchi (Loss of Appetite): Vidanga can stimulate appetite and improve digestive functions, making it beneficial for individuals experiencing a lack of appetite.

  14. Shula (Abdominal Pain): Vidanga’s carminative and analgesic properties can help alleviate abdominal pain and discomfort.

  15. Jvara (Fever): Vidanga’s fever-reducing properties make it useful in managing fever, particularly when accompanied by digestive issues.

Amayikaprayoga and Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dose):

Vidanga can be administered in various forms such as powder, decoction, or capsules. The recommended dosage may vary depending on the specific condition being treated and the individual’s constitution. It is advisable to consult a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner for personalized guidance on dosage.

Vishishta Yoga (Names of Important Formulations):

Vidanga is often used in combination with other herbs in Ayurvedic formulations to enhance its efficacy. Some important formulations that contain Vidanga include:

  • Vidangadi Churna: A traditional powder blend used for its anthelmintic properties.
  • Krimikuthara Rasa: A tablet formulation for treating intestinal parasites.
  • Vidangasava: A fermented herbal preparation known for its anthelmintic effects.

Vishakta Lakshan (Adverse Effects):

Vidanga is generally safe when used under the guidance of a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner and in appropriate dosages. However, excessive use may lead to symptoms of excess heat in the body, such as burning sensation and increased thirst. It is advisable to avoid Vidanga during pregnancy and lactation unless prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Chikitsopachara (Remedial Measures):

In cases of intestinal worm infestations, Ayurveda recommends incorporating Vidanga into the diet or using it in formulations to eliminate the parasites. Alongside this, adopting a balanced and digestive-friendly diet, maintaining proper hygiene, and avoiding unclean water and raw or undercooked food are important to prevent and manage worm infestations.

Shodhana (Purification Method):

Vidanga does not typically require purification methods like shodhana due to its relatively low toxicity. However, it is always recommended to consult an experienced Ayurvedic practitioner to determine the appropriate preparation and usage of Vidanga for your specific needs.

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Note: The information provided in this article is for educational purposes only and should not be considered as a substitute for medical advice. Please consult with a qualified healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of any other medical condition.

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