Otitis Externa (Karna Shotha)


Otitis externa, commonly known as swimmer’s ear, is an inflammatory condition of the external ear canal. This article provides a comprehensive overview of otitis externa, including its epidemiology, types, underlying mechanisms, risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods, treatment options, and preventive measures.


Otitis externa is a painful and often uncomfortable condition that affects the external ear canal. It can result from various causes, including bacterial or fungal infections, and is commonly associated with activities such as swimming. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and effective management of otitis externa is crucial for maintaining ear health and preventing complications.

Epidemiology of Otitis Externa:

Otitis externa is a common condition, especially during warm and humid months. It can affect individuals of all ages, but it is more prevalent among those who frequently engage in water-related activities.

Types of Otitis Externa:

Otitis externa can be categorized into different types based on its causative factors:

  1. Acute Otitis Externa:

    • Also known as “swimmer’s ear,” this type of infection occurs suddenly and is often associated with water exposure, such as swimming. It is characterized by pain, itching, redness, and inflammation of the ear canal.
  2. Chronic Otitis Externa:

    • Chronic otitis externa is a long-lasting or recurring form of outer ear infection. It may result from unresolved acute infections, skin conditions, or constant exposure to moisture.
  3. Necrotizing Otitis Externa:

    • This is a severe and potentially dangerous form of outer ear infection that affects the deeper tissues, including the cartilage and bone. It’s more common in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with diabetes or HIV/AIDS.
  4. Fungal Otitis Externa (Otomycosis):

    • This type of outer ear infection is caused by fungal growth, often due to excess moisture in the ear canal. It can result in itching, discomfort, and a feeling of fullness in the ear.
  5. Bacterial Otitis Externa:

    • Bacterial infections can lead to acute otitis externa, causing inflammation, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear canal. The most common bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  6. Allergic Otitis Externa:

    • Allergic reactions to substances like certain hair products, earrings, or earplugs can lead to inflammation and discomfort in the outer ear canal.
  7. Eczematous Otitis Externa:

    • Eczema or other skin conditions can affect the ear canal, leading to inflammation, redness, itching, and discomfort.
  8. Traumatic Otitis Externa:

    • Injuries or trauma to the outer ear canal, such as from aggressive cleaning or scratching, can create an entry point for infections.
  9. Malignant Otitis Externa:

    • This rare and severe form of outer ear infection typically occurs in elderly individuals with diabetes. It involves the spread of infection to deeper tissues and bones.
  10. Suppurative Otitis Externa:

    • In this type, there is discharge (pus) from the ear due to infection, often accompanied by pain and inflammation.

Pathophysiology of Otitis Externa:

  1. Skin Barrier Disruption:

    • Otitis externa typically begins with a disruption of the natural protective barrier of the skin lining the ear canal. This disruption can be caused by factors such as moisture, mechanical trauma, or chemical irritation.
  2. Moisture Accumulation:

    • Excessive moisture, often due to water exposure from swimming, bathing, or humid environments, can create an environment conducive to the growth of microorganisms.
  3. Microbial Invasion:

    • Bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms can take advantage of the compromised skin barrier and multiply in the moist and warm environment of the ear canal.
  4. Inflammation and Immune Response:

    • Microbial colonization triggers an immune response in the body, leading to inflammation of the ear canal’s skin. This inflammation causes the characteristic symptoms of redness, swelling, pain, and itching.
  5. Bacterial Infection:

    • In cases of bacterial otitis externa, bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa can overgrow and cause infection. Bacterial toxins and byproducts contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.
  6. Fungal Infection:

    • Fungal otitis externa, also known as otomycosis, occurs when fungi like Candida or Aspergillus overgrow in the ear canal. Fungal spores thrive in moist conditions and can lead to inflammation and discomfort.
  7. Itching and Scratching:

    • The discomfort caused by inflammation and infection may lead individuals to scratch or insert objects into the ear canal, further injuring the delicate skin and worsening the condition.
  8. Compromised Blood Flow:

    • Inflammation can impair blood circulation to the affected area, hindering the body’s natural healing processes.
  9. Excessive Wax Production:

    • In some cases, the body’s response to irritation and inflammation may lead to an increase in earwax production, potentially contributing to a blockage of the ear canal.
  10. Secondary Infections:

    • If left untreated, otitis externa can progress, leading to deeper tissue involvement, secondary infections, or even spread to surrounding structures, such as cartilage or bone (necrotizing otitis externa).

Risk Factors and Triggers:

  1. Water Exposure:

    • Water entering the ear canal, especially after swimming or frequent bathing, can soften the protective earwax and create a moist environment that promotes microbial growth.
  2. Hot and Humid Environments:

    • Living in areas with high humidity or engaging in activities that lead to excessive sweating can increase the risk of otitis externa.
  3. Improper Ear Hygiene:

    • Over-cleaning or aggressive cleaning of the ear canal can damage the delicate skin lining, disrupting the protective barrier and making it more susceptible to infection.
  4. Foreign Objects:

    • Inserting cotton swabs, hairpins, or other objects into the ear canal can cause scratches or injuries that may facilitate microbial entry.
  5. Skin Conditions:

    • People with eczema, psoriasis, or other skin conditions that affect the ear canal’s skin are at an increased risk due to compromised skin integrity.
  6. Immunosuppression:

    • Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, have a higher susceptibility to infections, including otitis externa.
  7. Allergies:

    • Allergic reactions to hair products, jewelry, or substances that come into contact with the ear canal can trigger inflammation and increase the risk.
  8. Trauma or Injury:

    • Trauma to the ear canal from aggressive cleaning, scratching, or wearing tight-fitting earplugs can lead to an increased risk of infection.
  9. Hearing Aid Use:

    • Prolonged use of hearing aids can lead to increased moisture and occlusion of the ear canal, creating an environment favorable for infection.
  10. Earwax Accumulation:

    • Excessive earwax buildup can trap moisture and debris, promoting bacterial or fungal growth.
  11. Circumstances with Poor Hygiene:

    • Inadequate personal hygiene practices or sharing personal items like earphones can increase the risk of infection.
  12. Aging:

    • As people age, the skin’s natural defenses may weaken, making older individuals more susceptible to infections.
  13. Frequent Ear Manipulation:

    • Frequent touching, scratching, or probing of the ear canal can introduce bacteria and irritate the skin.
  14. Tight-fitting Headphones or Earbuds:

    • Prolonged use of tight-fitting headphones or earbuds can trap moisture and contribute to the development of otitis externa.
  15. Chemical Irritants:

    • Exposure to chemicals, such as hair dyes or certain shampoos, can irritate the ear canal and increase the risk of infection.

Sign & Symptoms of Otitis Externa:

Otitis externa presents with various symptoms:

  1. Ear Pain (Otalgia):

    • Pain in the ear, often severe and worsened by pulling or touching the ear, is a common symptom of otitis externa.
  2. Ear Itching:

    • Intense itching or discomfort within the ear canal is a characteristic symptom, often preceding other signs.
  3. Ear Redness (Erythema):

    • The skin of the ear canal may appear red, inflamed, or swollen due to the infection and immune response.
  4. Ear Discharge (Otorrhea):

    • Yellowish, greenish, or pus-like discharge may be present, especially as the infection progresses.
  5. Hearing Impairment:

    • Partial hearing loss or muffled hearing can occur if the ear canal becomes blocked by swelling or discharge.
  6. Fullness or Sensation of Blockage:

    • Individuals may experience a feeling of fullness or blockage in the ear due to swelling or accumulation of discharge.
  7. Tenderness and Pain on Touch:

    • The ear canal may be sensitive to touch or pressure, causing discomfort when the ear is touched or when pressure is applied.
  8. Pain with Jaw Movement:

    • Chewing or moving the jaw may worsen the ear pain due to the close proximity of the ear canal to the temporomandibular joint.
  9. Swelling and Inflammation:

    • Swelling of the ear canal and adjacent tissues can lead to a visibly swollen or puffy appearance.
  10. Crusting or Scaling:

    • Crusts, scales, or flakes of skin may be present in the ear canal, often accompanied by itching.
  11. Discomfort or Pain While Talking:

    • Movement of the ear canal during speech or chewing can trigger pain or discomfort.
  12. Fever (In Some Cases):

    • If the infection is severe or there is an associated bacterial infection, fever may be present.
  13. Localized Lymph Node Enlargement:

    • Lymph nodes around the ear may become swollen and tender in response to the infection.
  14. Irritation or Redness of the Outer Ear:

    • The skin around the opening of the ear may also show signs of redness or irritation.
  15. Worsening Symptoms with Movement of the Head or Ear:

    • Symptoms may worsen when the head is moved or when the ear canal is manipulated.
  16. Discomfort or Pain with Water Exposure:

    • Water entering the ear canal can worsen symptoms or trigger pain, especially in cases of acute otitis externa.

Investigation & Diagnosis of Otitis Externa:

Diagnosing otitis externa involves:

  1. Visual Inspection (Otoscopy):

    • An otoscope, a specialized instrument with a light and magnifying lens, is used to examine the ear canal and eardrum. This helps visualize any inflammation, discharge, or signs of infection.
  2. Ear Swab Culture:

    • If an infection is suspected, a sample of ear discharge may be collected using a sterile swab. This sample is sent to a laboratory for culture and sensitivity testing to identify the specific microorganisms causing the infection and determine which antibiotics or antifungal agents are effective.
  3. Microscopic Examination:

    • A microscopic examination of the ear discharge may be performed to identify the presence of bacteria, fungi, or other pathogens.
  4. Hearing Assessment:

    • If hearing impairment is present, a hearing assessment (audiometry) may be conducted to evaluate the extent of hearing loss.

Treatment of Otitis Externa in Modern Medical Science:

Treatment aims to relieve symptoms, eliminate infection, and reduce inflammation:

  1. Ear Canal Cleaning:

    • The healthcare provider may clean the affected ear canal to remove debris, discharge, and any trapped moisture. This can help improve the effectiveness of topical medications.
  2. Topical Antibiotics:

    • Antibiotic ear drops or ointments containing ingredients like neomycin, polymyxin B, or ciprofloxacin may be prescribed to treat bacterial infections.
  3. Topical Antifungals:

    • For fungal infections, antifungal ear drops containing agents like clotrimazole or fluconazole can be used.
  4. Corticosteroids:

    • Topical corticosteroid ear drops may be prescribed to reduce inflammation, itching, and discomfort. They are often used in combination with antibiotics or antifungals.
  5. Pain Management:

    • Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be recommended to alleviate ear pain and discomfort.
  6. Moisture Control:

    • Keeping the ear dry is essential for healing. A moisture-repellent earplug or cotton ball coated with petroleum jelly can help prevent water entry during bathing or swimming.
  7. Oral Antibiotics (Severe Cases):

    • In cases of severe infection or complications, oral antibiotics may be prescribed to address the infection systemically.

Prevention & Precaution for Otitis Externa:

Preventive measures include:

  1. Maintain Ear Hygiene:

    • Clean the outer ear gently with a soft cloth after bathing or swimming. Avoid inserting objects like cotton swabs into the ear canal, as this can damage the skin and push debris deeper.
  2. Dry Ears Thoroughly:

    • After water exposure, tilt the head to allow water to drain out of the ears. Use a hair dryer on a low, cool setting to dry the ear canal, holding it at least a foot away from the ear.
  3. Ear Protection:

    • Use earplugs or custom-fitted swimming molds to prevent water from entering the ear during swimming or water activities.
  4. Avoid Irritants:

    • Avoid putting any foreign objects or harsh substances into the ear canal, such as earplugs that are not specifically designed for water use.
  5. Minimize Moisture Exposure:

    • Limit excessive moisture in the ear canal by avoiding prolonged exposure to humid environments or excessive sweating.
  6. Promptly Treat Skin Conditions:

    • If you have skin conditions like eczema or psoriasis, manage them effectively to prevent skin irritation and reduce the risk of otitis externa.
  7. Avoid Scratching or Over-Cleaning:

    • Refrain from scratching the ear canal or over-cleaning it, as this can cause microtears and increase the risk of infection.
  8. Use Ear Drops Wisely:

    • If ear drops are prescribed, use them as directed by a healthcare provider. Do not use ear drops without a medical recommendation.
  9. Protect Ears from Chemicals:

    • If using hair dyes or other chemicals, take precautions to prevent contact with the ears and clean the ears thoroughly afterward.
  10. Regular Checkups:

    • Regularly visit a healthcare provider for routine ear examinations, especially if you have a history of recurrent ear infections.
  11. Avoid Shared Items:

    • Do not share items like earphones, earbuds, or towels that come into contact with the ears.

Ayurvedic Perspective on Otitis Externa:

In Ayurveda, otitis externa is known as “Karna Shotha”, which refers to pain and discomfort in the ears. It is considered to arise from an imbalance in the Vata and Kapha doshas, leading to inflammation and accumulation of toxins in the ear canal. Ayurveda emphasizes the importance of maintaining ear hygiene, balancing the doshas, and adopting a healthy lifestyle to prevent and manage otitis externa.

Ayurvedic Treatment Principles for Otitis Externa:

Ayurvedic treatments for otitis externa focus on reducing inflammation, alleviating pain, and promoting ear health. Some treatment principles include:

  1. Dietary Modifications:

    • Ayurveda emphasizes the importance of a balanced diet to support the body’s natural healing processes. Favor warm, easily digestible foods and reduce the intake of cold, heavy, or greasy foods that could potentially aggravate the condition.
  2. Hydration and Fluids:

    • Adequate hydration is vital for maintaining overall health. Consuming warm herbal teas, clear soups, and lukewarm water can help balance the body’s internal moisture and support healing.
  3. Herbal Remedies:

    • Ayurveda utilizes various herbs with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and soothing properties that may be beneficial for otitis externa. Common herbs include neem (Azadirachta indica), tulsi (holy basil), and turmeric (Curcuma longa).
  4. Herbal Ear Drops:

    • Herbal ear drops made from medicated oils or herbal extracts may be recommended to soothe inflammation, reduce pain, and promote healing of the ear canal. These drops should be used under the guidance of an experienced Ayurvedic practitioner.
  5. Oil Massage (Abhyanga):

    • Gentle massage with warm herbal oils can promote relaxation, improve circulation, and support overall ear health. Massaging the scalp and areas around the ear may be beneficial.
  6. Steam Inhalation (Nasya):

    • Inhaling steam infused with herbal preparations can help relieve congestion and promote drainage in the ear canal.
  7. Ayurvedic Lifestyle Practices:

    • Adopting a balanced daily routine, practicing stress-reduction techniques (like yoga and meditation), and getting adequate rest can enhance the body’s natural healing abilities.
  8. Nasya (Nasal Drops):

    • Nasya, a nasal administration of herbal oils, can help balance the doshas (energies) and promote respiratory health, which may indirectly support ear health.

Ayurvedic Lifestyle Recommendations for Otitis Externa:

Ayurveda suggests lifestyle practices to manage and prevent otitis externa:

  1. Ear Hygiene: Keeping the ears clean and dry, avoiding excessive moisture, and refraining from inserting objects into the ear canal.

  2. Balanced Diet: Consuming a balanced diet rich in nutrients to strengthen the immune system and promote overall health.

  3. Pranayama and Yoga: Engaging in pranayama (breathing exercises) and gentle yoga postures to improve circulation and reduce stress.

The Role of Ayurveda in Otitis Externa Prevention:

Ayurveda plays a significant role in preventing otitis externa by promoting ear hygiene, maintaining doshic balance, and advocating a lifestyle that supports ear health. Following Ayurvedic guidelines can help prevent the occurrence of otitis externa and related discomfort.

Ayurvedic Researches on Otitis Externa:

While Ayurvedic texts discuss herbal remedies and lifestyle practices for ear health, scientific research on Ayurvedic treatments for otitis externa is limited. More studies are needed to explore the effectiveness of Ayurvedic interventions.

Challenges and Future Directions:

Integrating Ayurveda into mainstream healthcare for otitis externa management requires addressing challenges such as evidence-based research, standardization of treatments, and collaboration between traditional and modern medical systems. Future research can contribute to a deeper understanding of Ayurveda’s potential in promoting ear well-being.


Ayurveda offers a holistic approach to managing otitis externa by addressing doshic imbalances, reducing inflammation, and promoting ear hygiene. While further research is necessary, Ayurvedic principles, herbal remedies, and lifestyle adjustments can complement modern medical approaches and contribute to healthier ears.

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